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A Theory of The Interference of
Angular Molecular States
The interference of
two or more waves resulting in a new wave pattern is a
general property of elastic, electromagnetic, and other
waves, for which the superposition principle is valid.
According to de Broglie hypothesis of the universal
wave-particle dualism, any material particle should reveal wave properties. Interference can be observed when the de
Broglie wavelength is comparable with the observation system
scale. This restriction does not allow one to observe the
interference of macroscopic objects. At the same time, the
interference of electrons, atomic beams, and even molecular
beams, but not of their bound states is well known. The
present theory suggests that the interference of angular
molecular states of small molecules bound inside protein
cavities could be also observable at some specific
One of the
models of this theory considers a molecular gyroscopic
rotator. Its probability to react with the surrounding
medium depends on magnetic field. A variable magnetic
field is known to produce the eddy electric field. On the
whole, the charge density in a molecular rotator is
distributed non-uniformly over the molecule volume. Hence,
the eddy electric field exerts a torque, which accelerates
or slows down the random thermal rotations of the molecule.
The molecule is assumed to be inside of a protein cavity so
that its two edges form covalent bonds, i.e. supports, with
the cavity walls. In this case, thermal oscillations of the
supports produce only zero torque about the rotation axis.
Therefore, the gyroscopic degree of freedom thermalizes
slowly, due to the relatively weak van der Waals interaction
with the cavity walls. Then the magnetic field efficiently
controls the rotation of the molecule by the eddy electric
Under particular combinations of
the frequency and amplitude of the magnetic field, it
induces very specific non-uniform rotation of the molecule.
The molecule remains practically still almost over the
entire period of the field oscillation. Then it quickly
rotates over the complete angle, and so on. In such dynamic
mode, the reaction probability of the side groups of the
molecule with its surrounding increases. In the theory, the
molecular rotations are described in a quantum way, as the
interference of quantum states, since the de Broglie
wavelength of the molecule over the angle variable is of the
order of π even at the room
temperature. Because of the interference, magnetic fields
can change the equilibrium constant of the reaction. Results of many experiments in magnetobiology, on the one hand, and
calculations within the framework of this theory, on the other hand, are in a good
V.N. Binhi. Parametric resonance in magnetobiology: Review of the
ideas of Arber, Chiabrera, Lednev, Zhadin, Blackman, and
Binhi. Uchenye Zapiski Tavricheskogo
Natsionalnogo Universiteta (Proceedings of the Tavria
National University, Crimea, Ukraine). Series Chemistry,
Biology. 18(57), No.1, P.40–50, 2005. In Russian
V.N. Binhi. Reply to
«Comment on “Molecular gyroscopes and biological effects of weak
extremely low-frequency magnetic fields”».
Physical Review E,
Binhi. Non-thermal biological effects of
electromagnetic fields. Science and
Technologies in Industry (3-4):74–77, 2002. In Russian.
V.N. Binhi and A.V. Savin. Molecular
gyroscopes and biological effects of weak extremely low-frequency magnetic
fields. Phys Rev E 65(051912):1–10, 2002.
V.N. Binhi. Molecular
gyroscope as a likely target for weak electromagnetic fields in biological
systems. 5th International
Congress of the European BioElectromagnetic Association (EBEA), 6-8 September
2001, Helsinki, Finland. Abstracts, pp.161–162.
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V.N. Binhi, Ye.D. Alipov, and I.Ya. Belyaev. Effect of static
magnetic field on E. coli cells and individual rotations of ion-protein
complexes. Bioelectromagnetics 22(2):79–86, 2001.
V.N. Binhi. Amplitude and
frequency dissociation spectra of ion-protein complexes rotating in magnetic
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V.N. Binhi and R.J. Goldman. Ion-protein
dissociation predicts "windows" in electric field-induced wound-cell
proliferation. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1474:147–156, 2000.
V.N. Binhi. Magnetic
Noise and Biological Effects. 21
BEMS Meeting June 20–24, 1999 Long Beach, California USA.
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Binhi. Ion Interference Mechanism
for Biological Effects of the Amplitude Modulated Microwaves.
21 BEMS Meeting June 20–24, 1999 Long Beach, California USA.
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V.N. Binhi. Interference
mechanism for some biological effects of pulsed magnetic fields. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, 45:73–81, 1998.